Friday, May 22, 2020
Corruption in cricket Under the guidance of Prepared by: Prof. Pooja Mehra Sumit Prakash Enrollment No A6018214054 B.A (hons.) economics Session :2014-2017 Amity School of Economics Amity University Sector-125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This report was written during the summers of 2014, and is the result of two weeks of hard work and dedication. Although it was challenging at times, the process was interesting and motivating, and provided us with a deeper knowledge in the area of cricket This report however, would not have been made possible without the support of our faculty members and my friends. First and foremost, I would like to take the opportunity to express my gratitude to our internal mentor, Prof. Pooja Mehra, professor at amity, for his help and guidanceShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Downfall of Pakistan Cricket- by Adnan Khalid Chemical Engr- Mba( Operations Management), Ibm-Uet, Lahore.2535 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesPakistan cricket Submitted By ; Chemical Engr Adnan Khalid Submitted to : Prof Suhail Rizvi Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) : is the publicaly owned, governing authority for the regulation of Cricket in pakistan. A Brief History of Pakistan Cricket and Pakistan Cricket BoardRead MoreThe Indian Pakistan Conflict That Is Affecting Cricket991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconflict that is affecting cricket Issues over beef lynching India visas denial to a group of U.S religious freedom group Photoshopped politics in India What did you learn about India that you think is relevant to this course? (Mention at least 3 separate topics and write a paragraph for each one) The Indian-Pakistan war had started since 1947 and these two countries had been involve in four different wars and many borders conflicts. All these wars had seriously impacted cricket which is an importantRead MoreBusiness Ethics in India and Brazil1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinterpreted as showing disrespect, so be patient when dealing with the enormous bureaucracy. Pens v Leather Ã¢â¬â Pens are a status symbol whereas leather gifts may offend. Cricket Bollywood - Two subjects that Indians are passionate about are Bollywood, which does more movies annually than the U.S. and U.K. combined and Cricket which is the national sport. Be right Ã¢â¬â DonÃ¢â¬â¢t point, only use full hand to indicate something and never pass anything to someone with left hand. Learn Ã¢â¬Å"NamasteÃ¢â¬ - It canRead MoreScam Allegation on Lalit Modi and Suresh Kalmadi3083 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesthe Chairman and Commissioner of the Indian Premier League and the Chairman of the Champions League, between 2008 and 2010, he has also occupied the roles of Vice President of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), between 2005 and September 2010, and Vice President of the Punjab Cricket Association. Lalit Modi is also the President and Managing Director of Modi Enterprises and the Executive Director of Godfrey Phillips India His Background: Lalit Modi was born in a wealthy and successfulRead MoreRole Of The Media And Government1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesonly when corruption or scandal arise does the notion of questioning the values associated with sport or the press ever shake the conventional framework or the parameters for thinking about the symbiotic relationship between sport and the media Ã¢â¬â a relationship that in the contemporary era is dominated by sport, television and new media forms. By 1900 the Sunday papers were selling up to 2 million copies; the News of the World gave 14 per cent of its space to sport, especially racing, cricket, footballRead MoreMost Basic and Frequently Asked Interview Questions and Answers10148 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesand weaknesses? 5. What are your short term and long term goals? 6. What are your contributions in order to meet the goals of our company? 7. Tell me about your native place. 8. Tell me about your college days. 9. Can u explain about Child labour/Corruption/Poverty? 10. Why do you want to leave your current job? 11. Describe the movie you have seen recently. 12. Tell me about a memorable/happiest/saddest day in your life. 13. Who is your role model, and why? 14. What is your favourite colour? TalkRead MorePublic Relation Dilemm Imran Khan And Panama Leaks Issue1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages REPORT ON PUBLIC RELATION DILEMMA IMRAN KHAN AND PANAMA LEAKS ISSUE PUBLIC RELATIONS (COURSE) SUBMITTED TO: MAÃ¢â¬â¢AM FAIZA NASIR MAÃ¢â¬â¢AM FAIZA ABDULLAH (COURSE INSTRUCTOR) SUBMITTED BY: RAJA KUMAR REG NO: 23985 MBA-WEEKENDRead MoreFactors Influencing The Swing Of A Cricket Ball2907 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesinfluencing the swing of a cricket ball Hari Murthy a,Ã¢Ëâ" a Department of Mechanical Engineering,University of Canterbury Christchurch 8140, New Zealand Abstract Text of abstract. Text of abstract. Text of abstract. Text of abstract. Text of abstract. Keywords: cricket, swing, factors, reverse swing 1. Introduction Cricket originated in England with the 1st official test played in 1877 between England and Australia  and gradually grew into a global sport with the first cricket World Cup held in EnglandRead MoreShould College Athletes Be Paid?1250 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCenturies ago in the 1770s the first sport known as cricket originated in England. As time passed by more sports began originating in England such as football and basketball. These sports became very popular worldwide and were incorporated in Universities as extra-curricular activities. As more students started playing some students demonstrated more talent than others. One of the sports students played was football which in the United States college football became a national obsession. More peopleRead MoreQuestions On Lack Of Infrastructure1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshow to play cricket but his potential cannot be utilized unless and until he has been provided with required infrastructure same is the case of every school and colleges where thousands of graduates are coming out without the knowledge of skills and abilities and end result in remaining unemployed. If resources are provided then we can conver t them into quality of workforce which is the dire need of country like India. (mishra, 2011) 5] Corruption: A country like India where corruption is common thing
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Genetic Modified Potatoes Vaccines based for Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is an inflammation or enlargement of the liver in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body due to the cause of Hepatitis B Virus. Eventually people with HBV will encounter in liver damage in the future. This disease occurs in most countries in Asia and Africa. There are some medications that are available viral treatment therapies and as well as vaccine shots. But now, Biotechnology has taken a turn its course by creating Genetic Modified Potatoes to create potential vaccines for Hepatitis B. A hepatitis vaccine shot is quite expensive to purchase compare to other countries; therefore, researchers begin conducting their Genetic Modified testing on potatoes to create Hepatitis oral vaccinesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Their experiment was a success, but further researches needs to be conducted to make sure the vaccines are easier to be distributed to other countries around the world. The potato is not an ideal vehicle for vaccines, since it is not a common food in many developing countries and may lose its effectiveness when cooked (Williams, 2002). Field Trials Researchers utilizing the transgenic plants to produce vaccine for us humans are the main purpose of molecular farming. Numerous transgenic plant vaccines are being created and field tested each and every day. Several test of the hepatitis B vaccine in the potato were hampered by the low levels of antigen produced in the plant, and by the safety requirement that only individuals previously immunized with injected vaccine should be exposed to the plant vaccine (Cummins, 2011). In this case, the oral vaccine preparations will induce immune tolerance, thereby making the individual susceptible to the hepatitis B virus (Cummins, 2011). When experimenting with a transgenic potato, the process started out as inserting with genes for cholera, E.coli antigens and rotavirus enterotoxin. Adult mice were found to produce antibodies to the toxins after feeding on the transgenic potatoes (Cummins, 2011). Neonate mice passively immunized by suckling from mice fed transgenic potatoes a nd had fewerShow MoreRelatedGenetically Modified Organisms ( Gmos ) Essay876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGenetically modified organisms (GMOs) are the products of a new technology involving recombination and transfer of DNA, which arouses a storm of controversy among the society. The primary purpose of this literary review is to summarize the advantages and potential hazards of GMOs that are examined in earlier studies. This paper also takes into account consideration of other relating aspects such as tests used for risk assessment, as well as scientific perspective in level of acceptance and sociallyRead MoreBenefits Of Genetically Modified Flavrsavr Tomato1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction In 1994 the first genetically modified FlavrSavr tomato was put into the U.S. market, an event that cause a huge uproar all over the world. Since this event took place, scientists, consumers, scholars, and journalists have been in an ongoing debate on GM foods. Contradictory to many ideas, GM foods are a sea of unknown risks rather than a sped up process of selective breeding that is completely harmless. Overview In history farmers have produced desired traits in crops throughRead MorePros and Cons of Genetically Modified Foods2267 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesdiscovery uses genetic engineering technology to modify foods. Farmers and plant breeders have been changing crop plants to improve characteristics such as size, resistance to disease and taste. Plants which grow well, have a higher yield or taste better are selected and bred from. This is still the most widely used technique for developing new varieties of a crop, and is limited by natural barriers which stop different species of organisms from breeding with each other. Genetic modification isRead MoreEffects of GMOS3836 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesissue of genetically modified organisms is drawing unprecedented media attention due to its potential of bringing about fundamental changes in the genetic make up of living beings. Following paragraphs throw some light on this controversial subject. What are Genetically Modified Organisms? The genetically modified organisms or GMOs are the animals and plants that are genetically modified in order to develop the useful or desired traits. The techniques used to carry out genetic modification are knownRead MoreGenetically Modified Organisms ( Gmos )1830 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesresources to accommodate worldÃ¢â¬â¢s populations raised a global concern and therefore; science and technology have been employed in the attempts to prevent the possibility of global food shortages. This ultimately led to the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In a nutshell, GMOs crops have been developed with the promise of higher yields for farmers, longer storage life and in some cases, more nutritional values for consumers. In spite of the promising benefits that GMOs have to offer
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Drone Attacks Inside Pakistan there is Ã¢â¬Ënational consensusÃ¢â¬â¢ on the drones: the US must stop its Predators because they kill innocent citizens in collateral damage and increase the pressure on Pakistan Army fighting the Taliban by swelling the ranks of those who fight it for revenge. Outside Pakistan, there is an impression that the drones are being used against the terrorists in PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s Tribal Areas under some kind of secret deal between the CIA and Pakistan Army. Another al Qaeda top echelon leader has been killed on January 11Ã in Miranshah in North Waziristan through this alleged Ã¢â¬ËcoordinationÃ¢â¬â¢. We will write a custom essay sample on Drone Attack or any similar topic only for you Order Now This was said to be Abdullah Khorasani, who is believed to have been playing a key role in planning the overall strategy of terror acts in Pakistan. The manÃ¢â¬â¢s real name was AslamAwan, and he was a citizen of Abbottabad, where Osama bin Laden was killed last May by US commandos. As per routine, the drone attack was effective because it was directed by spotters on ground calling the strike precisely on to the victim. The strike ended a 55-day-long pause after the Salalacheckpost attack by American gunships in November 2011. Following this, a foreign news agency quoted Pakistani officials who said that theÃ drones are being operated under an agreed US-Pakistan planÃ which remains classified. This clearly contradicts the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s public stance on this issue, which, quite stridently believes that drones violate PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s sovereignty and territorial integrity. The American stance in the past has been that drone attacks had to be carried out without bringing Pakistan into the loop because the Pakistani side tended to Ã¢â¬Ëpass onÃ¢â¬â¢ the information about the attack to the terrorists who then moved away from the target area. This was understood all over the world in the light of the belief that Pakistan was actually an allowing safe haven to foreigner terrorists in North Waziristan whom it used for attacking inside Afghanistan to retain its stake in the Afghan endgame. The new Ã¢â¬ËinformationÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â including quotes from unnamed Pakistani officials Ã¢â¬â belies much of that. It purports to verify that the Pakistani side was indeed keeping the strikes secret and, instead of passing on the information to the terrorists, was actually helping the CIA target them with spotters on the ground. Given the nature of these revelations, it remains to be seen what the Pakistani militaryÃ¢â¬â¢s response will be to them. One should understand that the drone attacks have been a success story as far as the US and its allies are concerned. The Ã¢â¬ËanalysisÃ¢â¬â¢ about the Ã¢â¬Ëwiping outÃ¢â¬â¢ of al Qaeda and the sharp diminution in its ability to target America and Europe is based on the number of al Qaeda terrorists killed by the drones inside Pakistan. As if to confirm this, a meeting took place between an al Qaeda leader and Mullah Umar in the presence of other commanders in which the al Qaeda representative was quoted as appealing for help for more attacks by allies in Pakistan. PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath against the CIA after the Raymond Davis case in Lahore early 2011 had brought theÃ US-Pakistan quarrel to a boiling point. Since then, and since the May 2 attack that killed Osama bin Laden, the relationship has been hurtling downhill, ending in PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision not to attend the Bonn conference on Afghanistan. This would then lead to many arguing that with this all as a backdrop, how Pakistan could possibly be cooperating with the US on the drone attacks. Yet there is logic to the opposite point of view. Pakistan has benefited from the attacks in the sense that some of its most dangerous enemies have been killed by the drones. BaitullahMehsud, the Taliban chief, whose intercepted telephone call revealed that he was behind the assassination of Benazir Bhutto, was killed by a drone. Ilyas Kashmiri was killed in a drone strike andÃ HakimullahMehsud, who succeeded Baitullah, was killed Ã¢â¬ËtwiceÃ¢â¬â¢ in drone strikes. The first one was false but the second more recent one is yet to be proven false. Clearly, drone strikes are effective. However, PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of saying one thing in public and quite the opposite in private should be replaced by when where the people should be persuaded of this strategyÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness. How to cite Drone Attack, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Orientalism Paper Orientalism is a field of study which is at style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between the Orient and the Occident. It invokes a flexible positioning superiority in which Europe is put into a number of positions of superiority. It is part of an overall campaign of self-affirmation, belligerency, and outright war, (Said xix) however, and in this we see the religious implications. For much of its history Orientalism carries within it the stamp of a problematic European attitude toward Islam. (Said 73) Islam was a threat to a Christian Europe the Ottoman Empire lay geographically close to Christian lands, so there was not only the threat of different religious ideas but also the treat of a mighty military and political power. It resulted in a historical fear of Islam. Orientalism was essentially an attempt to domesticate that threat, but the Orient needed first to be known, then invaded and possessed, then re-created by scholars, soldiers, and judges who disinterred forgotten languages, histories, races, and cultures in order to posit them as the true classical Orient that could be used to judge and rule the modern Orient. (91-92) The Occident responded with the creation of an imaginative geography within which Islam could be confined. Orientalism legitimates a vocabulary, a universe of representative discourse peculiar to the discussion and understanding of the Orient (Said 71) and it consisted of a set of representative figures, or tropes. (Said 71) We will write a custom essay sample on Orientalism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Orientalism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Orientalism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This does not go to say that Orientalism formed the cornerstone of truth of the Orient, but rather that it was Western ignorance which becomes more refined and complex, not some body of positive Western knowledge which increases in size and accuracy. (Said 62) As a field of knowledge it is a closed body of knowledge in which objects are what they are because they are what they are, for once, for all time, for ontological reasons that no empirical material can either dislodge or alter. (Said 70) The fact that Orientalism derived its authentic from its unchanging nature would cause problems with the emergence of the 19th century. Orientalism would have to change to survive with the times. There was disillusionment when it was realized that the classical Orient did not properly represent the actual Orient. It became what was known as the betrayed dream. What was realized was that one could only really use generalities to describe the Orient in order not to conflict with the specific actualities; it was almost as if a bin called Oriental existed into which all the authoritative, anonymous, and traditional Western attitudes to the East were dumped unthinkingly. (Said 102) These generalities created an aura of eccentricity surrounding the Orient, by which the Orient becomes a living tableau of queerness. (Said 103) This tableau was designated as a disciplined way from which the Orientalist could approach it; essentially, its foreignness [could] be translated, its meanings decoded, its hostility tamed. (Said 103) From this arose the tactics of modern Orientalism. Orientalism was reconstituted, redeployed, redistributed and in the secular framework. (Said 121) There were four components to this process, the end product being naturalized supernaturalism. The first component was due to the Orient expanding past the Islamic lands. This simply goes to say that there were more lands under scrutiny and a binary opposition between Islam and Christianity was no longer possible; there were too many cultures and religions that could come into interaction. All such widening horizons had Europe firmly in the privileged center, as main observer. (Said 117) Secondly, there was the component of historical confrontation that no longer was viable; the Orient was simply not viewed in a confrontational light. Rather, it was viewed as an (inferior) object of study. It involved a greater involvement with source material and confronting the Orients peculiarities with objective detachment. The third component deals with the notion of historicism. This idea promoted the belief that the Occident could penetrate the Orient on the precedent that all cultures are presumably organically and internally coherent historicism encourages such an intellectual penetration. This was done by sympathetic identification by which the Orientalist saw the elements of kinship between himself and the Orient, and this supposedly gave him access to the Orient. Lastly, the core of modern Orientalism rested in the practice of classification. This process involved reducing vast numbers of objects to a smaller number of orderable and describable types [that] belonged to a system, a network of related generalizations. (Said 119) Thus, when an Oriental was referred to, it was in terms of such generic universals as his primitive state, his primary characteristics, his particular spiritual background. (Said 120) Also, this process was carried out in the name of objectivity and claimed its authority from such scientific procedures, rather than on religious superiority as the classical Orientalism did. This was the essence of naturalized supernaturalism, by which religious structures were recast in the secular. From this it is very evident that Orientalism is a man-made field and not a universal or pure truth. Orientalist disciplines were changing (even as Orientalism claimed the values of an unchanging, classical Orient) into their modern form, in which power welt in the new, scientifically advanced techniques of philology and anthropological generalization. (Said 121) Silvestre de Sacy was the forerunner of modern Orientalism: his work virtually put before the profession an entire systematic body of texts, a pedagogic practice, a scholarly tradition, and an important link between Oriental scholarship and public policy. (Said 124) He was responsible for his revisionist projects: all of his work was presented as a revised extract of the best that had already been done, said, or written. (Said 125) He was reproducing the Orient for the Occident, but only those parts that he deemed useful or important; these were carefully selected and arranged topics from the greater body of Oriental knowledge. He believed that the vastly rich (in space, time, and cultures) Orient cannot be totally exposed, only its most reprehensive parts need be. (Said 125) Sacy was thus in a position of authority that modern Orientalism so proudly touts he was the one that chose what was important from the Orient and his choices gave semiotic power to the topics that would now represent the entire Orient.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Basic Facts Everyone Should Know About Clouds Clouds may look like big, fluffy marshmallows in the sky, but in reality, they are visible collections of tiny water droplets (or ice crystals, if its cold enough) that live high in the atmosphere above the Earths surface. Here, we discuss the science of clouds: how they form, move, and change color.Ã Formation Clouds form when a parcel of air rises from the surface up into the atmosphere. As the parcel ascends, it passes through lower and lower pressure levels (pressure decreases with height). Recall that air tends to move from higher to lower pressure areas, so as the parcel travels into lower pressure areas, the air inside of it pushes outward, causing it to expand. This expansion uses heat energy, and therefore cools the air parcel. The farther upward it travels, the more it cools. When its temperature cools to that of its dew point temperature, the water vapor inside of the parcel condenses into droplets of liquid water. These droplets then collect on the surfaces of dust, pollen, smoke, dirt, and sea salt particles called nuclei. (These nuclei are hygroscopic, meaning they attract water molecules.) It is at this point- when water vapor condenses and settles onto condensation nuclei- that clouds form and become visible. Shape Have you ever watched a cloud long enough to see it expanding outward, or looked away for a moment only to find that when you look back its shape has changed? If so, youll be glad to know it isnt your imagination. The shapes of clouds are ever-changing thanks to the processes of condensation and evaporation. After a cloud forms, condensation doesnt stop. This is why we sometimes notice clouds expanding into the neighboring sky. But as currents of warm, moist air continue to rise and feed condensation, drier air from the surrounding environment eventually infiltrates the buoyant column of air in a process called entrainment. When this drier air is introduced into the cloud body, it evaporates the clouds droplets and causes parts of the cloud to dissipate. Movement Clouds start out high up in the atmosphere because thats where theyre created, but they remain suspended thanks to the tiny particles they contain. A clouds water droplets or ice crystals are very small, less than a micron (thats less than one-millionth of a meter). Because of this, they respond very slowly to gravity. To help visualize this concept, consider a rock and a feather. Gravity affects each, however the rock falls quickly whereas the feather gradually drifts to the ground because of its lighter weight. Now compare a feather and an individual cloud droplet particle; the particle will take even longer than the feather to fall, and because of the particles tiny size, the slightest movement of air will keep it aloft. Because this applies to each cloud droplet, it applies to the entire cloud itself. Clouds travel with the upper-level winds. They move at the same speed and in the same direction as the prevailing wind at the clouds level (low, middle, or high). High-level clouds are among the fastest moving because they form near the top of the troposphere and are pushed by the jet stream. Color A clouds color is determined by the light it receives from the Sun. (Recall that the Sun emits white light; that white light is made up of all the colors in the visible spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet; and that each color in the visible spectrum represents an electromagnetic wave of a different length.) The process works like this: As the Suns lightwaves pass through the atmosphere and clouds, they meet the individual water droplets that make up a cloud. Because the water droplets have a similar size as the wavelength of sunlight, the droplets scatter the Suns light in a type of scattering known as Mie scattering in which all wavelengths of light are scattered. Because all wavelengths are scattered, and together all colors in the spectrum make up white light, we see white clouds. In the case of thicker clouds, such as stratus, sunlight passes through but is blocked. This gives the cloud a grayish appearance.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Begin the New Year in Thanks Write a Gratitude List Begin the New Year in Thanks: Write a Gratitude List How many times have you told yourself, This year Im going to lose weight, or This year Im gonna start a business, or pursued some other grand idea that never quite panned out? Weve all been there. This year, forgo the back-breaking resolutions that make you feel like a failure. Start the year fresh with a gratitude list. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s a Ã¢â¬Å"Gratitude List?Ã¢â¬ A gratitude list is a simple exercise that can pull you out of sticky bad feelings. Take out a piece of paper (or your phone or laptop), and start writing things that are good in your life. It may seem hard at first, but starting out with a small list of five things and adding to it throughout the week can lift your spirits and create a happier and healthier you. It might be a foreign concept, but it works. Why Do a List? When youÃ¢â¬â¢re not feeling content or well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s great to look at your gratitude list. When nervous, angry, or scared, take a deep breath and reflect upon the things for which youÃ¢â¬â¢re grateful. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been proven that people who live in a spirit of gratitude do better at school and in work. A good mood can affect your life tremendously, and help you during difficult times. Making up a gratitude list may sound cheesy, but it helps de-clutter your head and allow you to focus on the positive. For more helpful tips to better yourself and your future, call 1-800-573-0840. will help you write well, achieve academically, and more.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Bibliography - Essay Example The approach is described in non-technical terms for risk communicators to help them serve the public in making informed decisions. The author follows the evolution of the research on risk communication over the years, the mistakes made and the lessons learnt. This essay provides a brief history of risk communication organized around certain developmental stages, with each stage characterized by a focal communication strategy. The essay, however, has not provided comprehensive illustrations or examples. Communication is like an insurance policy in that it is a fixed cost that can keep a larger damage at bay. Receiving relevant information on environment and health risks and on the safety of modern technologies is a very important need of modern man, but he seldom receives it. The authors, making use of case studies, give an overview of the critical role of risk management in dealing with public controversies and an insight into the risk communication practices and malpractices. The book leaves scope for the concerned authorities to devise ways to check the malpractices and inadequacies in risk communication. The failure of institutions in adequately communicating about risks result in inadequate management of risks leading to heavy financial loss. The study examines a very important and subtle aspect of risk communication, which is trust and credibility. ... Peters, R. G., Covello, V. T., McCallum, D. B. (1997). The determinants of trust and credibility in environmental risk communication: An empirical study. Risk Analysis 17(1). Retreived October 20, 2008, from http://www.centerforriskcommunication.org/pubs/crc-p2.pdf The study examines a very important and subtle aspect of risk communication, which is trust and credibility. An important hypothesis tested in this study regarding perceptions and determinants of trust and credibility is that they are dependent on three factors, namely perceptions of knowledge and expertise, perceptions of openness and honesty, and perceptions of concern and care. The responses to surveys are mostly in the predictable lines in that they mostly reflect general perceptions. A significant finding is that defying a negative stereotype leads to improved perceptions of trust and credibility. O'Connor, A.M., Legare, F., & Stacey, D. (2003). Risk communication in practice: the contribution of decision aids. BMJ 327(7417) 736-740. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7417.736. The authors examine the effectiveness of the communication of risks, benefits and options by clinicians in helping patients make an informed decision regarding their healthcare. Different decisions require different strategies for communication. Effective services are those in which benefits/harm ratio is large, and those in which the ratios are uncertain are preference sensitive services. The article does not explain how to equip the support service system to handle the diverse plans of diverse patients. The goal of decision-making is to choose options that are most beneficial and the least harmful. Decision support should take into account a patient's personal values, resources and determination. Croyle, R.T. & Lerman, C. (1999).